Cosmos is a network of many impartial blockchains known as zones. The zones are powered by Tendermint Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT), which presents a high-performance, steady, secure PBFT-like consensus engine, where strict fork-accountability guarantees hold over the behavior of malicious actors. The Tendermint BFT consensus set of rules is well appropriate for scaling public proof-of-stake blockchains.
The primary sector of Cosmos is known as the Cosmos Hub. The Cosmos Hub is a multi-asset proof-of-stake cryptocurrency with a simple governance mechanism that permits the network to adapt and evolve. Similarly, the Cosmos Hub can be extended by connecting other zones.
The hub and zones of the Cosmos network communicate with each other through an inter-blockchain communication (IBC) protocol, a form of virtual UDP or TCP for blockchains. Tokens can be transferred from one area to another securely and quickly without the need for exchange liquidity among zones. Instead, all inter-zone token transfers go through the Cosmos Hub, which maintains track of each zone’s overall amounts of tokens. The hub isolates each area from the failure of other zones. Because everyone can connect a new spot to the Cosmos Hub, zones permit future compatibility with new blockchain innovations.